• Various medical device companies apply Circular Economy (CE) strategies

• Circular strategies application differs based on medical device value and criticality

• Nine types of Circular Business Models (CBM) exist in the medical device industry

• CBM representations can assist practitioners to identify innovation opportunities

• The medical industry can be a benchmark for other industries in CE innovation

The medical device industry leads to high environmental footprint while holding fundamental social function. The panorama is composed of devices with rather specific lifecycles and impacts: imaging equipment that eventually become electronic waste, sophisticated invasive devices that require sterilisation before reprocessing, and potentially infected single-use devices that hinder recycling possibilities. It is, thus, challenging for practitioners to identify opportunities for circular business model (CBM) innovation to the many types of devices. Therefore, this research aims to detail the application of CBMs in the medical device industry so that they can be used as benchmarks. . .

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